SPI Findings

2022 SPI Map and Findings graphic

Learn more about SPI site successes as it relates to gun violence, and violence reduction through our SPI Successes One-Pagers or using the below table.


SPI Findings

SiteImplementationResearch Design & FindingsTopic
Kansas City, MO2012

The Kansas City SPI addressed violent crime, particularly gun violence, using a model called the Kansas City No Violence Alliance (KC NoVA).

  • Used social network analysis and group audits to identify violent offender groups (and their frequent associates).
  • Implemented a full range of interventions (e.g., offender notification sessions, enhanced monitoring by patrol officers, strategic federal prosecution, intensive probation and parole supervision, social services).
  • Collaborated with numerous criminal justice stakeholders.
Research Design

Bivariate analysis and interrupted time series analysis to assess the impact of the focused deterrence pulling levers strategy.


40% reduction in homicide.

19% reduction in gun-related aggravated assaults.

Gun Violence, Violence Reduction
Kansas City, KS2016

The Kansas City, MO SPI approach employed evidence-based strategies incorporating both place-based and person-based violence prevention methods in a micro hot spot (MHS) network experiment. The SPI implemented two interventions to examine the effectiveness of each in the East Patrol Division: 

  • Deployed Saturation Patrol in Five Areas: A place-based approach that added 15 minutes of police presence during high-crime periods.
  • Deployed Network-Based Intervention in Five Areas: An approach using social network analysis to identify persons central to violent crime for individualized police attention (diversion/services or enforcement actions).
Research Design

The sites, with buffer zones, were randomly assigned as either treatment or control areas: five for saturation patrol; five for network-based intervention (NBI); and six control areas. Comparable pre- and post-intervention periods were established to measure results and changes over time.

  • Saturation patrol resulted in fewer high priority calls for service
  • Saturation patrol resulted in fewer crimes, although the impact was modest
  • Network-based interventions resulted in fewer high priority calls for service during the first year of implementation but increases in the second year. 
  • Crime in network-based intervention experienced few changes in overall crime, and violent crime in these MHSs increased relative to control areas
Violence Reduction
Los Angeles, CA2009

The Los Angeles SPI addressed gun-related violence using Operation LASER (Los Angeles’ Strategic Extraction and Restoration Program).

  • Targeted violent repeat offenders and gang members who commit crimes in target areas.
  • Used intelligence-driven location- and offender-based tactics.
  • Implemented a Crime Intelligence Detail, composed of sworn officers and a local crime analyst, to create proactive, real-time intelligence briefs called Chronic Offender Bulletins.
  • Directed patrol, specific missions, and enhanced surveillance.
Research Design

Interrupted time-series analysis, which assesses whether the interventions in target areas had an effect on crime while controlling for previous trends. (Research evaluation is ongoing.)


22.6% reduction in homicides per month in the target division.

5.2% reduction in gun crimes per month in each reporting district of the target division.

Gun Violence, Violence Reduction
Los Angeles, CA2014

In 2014, the Los Angeles Police Department's SPI expanded operation Los Angeles Strategic Extraction and Restoration (LASER) into six seven additional zones. LASER was a developed SPI initiative in 2009 that involved a data-driven approach that includes both location- and offender-based strategies – most notably a Crime Intelligence Detail (CID). CID’s primary mission centers on the development of proactive, real-time intelligence briefs called Chronic Offender Bulletins.

Research Design

The evaluation examined two major indicators for implementation (dosage) and outcomes (crime reduction).

  • Study findings showed that LASER resulted in significant division-wide reductions in Part I crimes, gun crimes, and robberies. 
  • LASER was credited with double digit reductions in homicides and victims shot in four divisions that accounted for 48% of the city’s violent gun crimes.
Gun Violence, Violence Reduction
Lowell, MA2014

The Lowell, Massachusetts Police Department SPI undertook an extensive department reorganization to reduce property crime, increase community policing efforts and to institutionalize problem solving techniques. Activities included: 1) reorganization of geographic deployment of patrol; 2) creation of District Response Officers to work in teams; 3) decentralization of the crime analysis unit to neighborhood precincts; 4) productive interaction between crime analysts and patrol officers and supervisors; 5) modified supervision structure; 6) increased community policing and problem solving through the adoption of a case of place approach; 7) training of officers and supervisors in best practices; and 8) revamping Compstat to integrate problem solving and community policing.

Research Design

Interrupted time series research design complemented by a process evaluation. 

  • From 2014 to 2017, crimes decreased by 17% from 5,694 to 4,723. The largest decreases were in car breaks (34.7%), burglary (25.5%), and aggravated assaults (24.6%).
  • Decentralization of the Crime Analysis and Intelligence Unit (CAIU) has had a significantly positive impact on the interaction between analysts, officers and supervisors, literally creating a direct relationship between analysts and officers in the field.
  • CAIU decentralization has increased information sharing across CAIU, officers and supervisors.
Organizational Change, Violence Reduction
Memphis, TN2019

The Memphis, TN SPI project addressed gun violence through the implementation and evaluation of a gunshot detection system by the name of ShotSpotter. The Memphis Police Department (MPD) worked closely with research partners from the University of Memphis to assess the impact of ShotSpotter on the time of response, calls for services (CFS), evidence recovered (such as casings and firearms), arrests and National Integrate Ballistic Information Network (NIBIN) hits.

Research Design

Researchers wanted to evaluate the effectiveness of ShotSpotter’s technology in comparison to currently implemented strategies. To do so, researchers collected and evaluated data on cases where (1) ShotSpotter was the only basis for the call, (2) cases where ShotSpotter did not detect, and the response is only a call for service (CFS) and (3) ShotSpotter and a CFS both occurred for the incident.  Additionally, researchers collected data on the number of shooting reports resulting from ShotSpotter versus that didn’t come from ShotSpotter, time to response (ShotSpotter vs non-ShotSpotter) and lastly, the number of National Integrate Ballistic Information Network hits were collected as a result of ShotSpotter. Data was gathered from 16 months prior to the implementation of ShotSpotter and compared to data collected 16 months post implementation.

  • The implementation of ShotSpotter significantly increased the number of NIBIN hits.
  • ShotSpotter was often instantaneous, alerting agencies of a gunshot within seconds.
  • Implementation of ShotSpotter and gunshot detection technology highlights the number of shots fired that do not get reported to police.
Gun Violence, Technology
Miami, FL2014

The Miami, FL SPI project was devoted primarily to enhancing and improving the analytical capacity within the Miami Police Department. The primary goal of the project was to better utilize the vast troves of data repositories to produce information that could be utilized by police commanders and detectives to inform operational decision-making. A secondary goal of the project was to employ a Problem-Oriented Policing and Situational Crime Prevention framework to address the chronic problem of theft-from-motor vehicles. Some of the tactics utilized included deployment of CCTV cameras, focused patrols, increased officer presence, deployment of license plate readers, focused task force operations, creation of a dedicated motor vehicle theft detective unit, and insertion of barricades

Research Design

A quasi-experimental design was used which included a one sample pre-post design to examine agency perceptions of use of crime analytics. The evaluation of crime reduction was comprised of a simple time series assessment and emerging pre-post comparisons in micro-level target areas.

  • Pre and post knowledge tests of analysts surrounding formal training sessions showed a 25 to 53 percent improvement in testing scores.
  • Further, an approximated before and after assessment of administrators found that analytical work products went from being used never or only occasionally, to now being used about 1 to 2 times per week on average.
Violence Reduction
Miami, FL2019

The Miami Police Department (MPD) developed a Real Time Crime Center (RTCC) in response to the rise in violent crimes taking place in the city. The RTCC developed was a centralized platform within MPD that allowed the agency to capture and deploy a plethora of information to officers, detectives, and Neighborhood Enhancement Team (NET) commanders in real time to improve responses to violent crime offenses. MPD partnered with Florida International University (FIU) to evaluate metrics associated with effectiveness of the new system.

Research Design

To understand the impact that Miami’s Real Time Crime Center (MRTCC) had on police practices, researchers utilized a mixed-methods study design consisting of three parts. First, researchers utilized a qualitative survey distributed to the frequent users of the MRTCC technologies to understand the role that they played in various MPD assignments and gauge officer perceptions of its benefits. Next, researchers designed a network analysis of violent crime case components to visualize and determine how MRTCC technologies have become integrated into case processing within the Miami Police Department. This allowed for researchers to evaluate how MPD utilizes and integrates MRTCC products within their case processing. Lastly, a quasi-experiment with relevant controls was conducted to understand the impact of MRTCC technologies on clearance rates and the time it takes for the agency to clear a case.

  • Users of the MRTCC technologies had a positive perception of the technology and found them to be easily accessible and useful to their daily work.
  • Most respondents believed that MRTCC technologies had improved the identification and documentation of evidence, improved the ability to clear cases, and reduced the time to clear cases.
  • Users conveyed that the MRTCC platform could be improved by expanding the technologies, particularly CCTV, to cover more operational areas 24 hours a day, and by allowing direct use of some technologies by detectives and commanders.
  • The use of MRTCC technologies has become fully integrated into the processing of cases.
  • Use of MRTCC technologies has significantly improved the ability to clear violent crime cases but has not shortened the amount of time to clear cases.
Technology, Violence Reduction
Milwaukee, WI2015

The Milwaukee, WI SPI deployed a body-worn camera (BWC) initiative to examine officer behavior, arrests, traffic stops, citizen complaints, and use of force between officers with and without BWCs. 

Research Design

Randomized controlled trial of 252 officers assigned a BWC and 252 officers without a BWC. The experiment used a difference-in-differences approach for the analysis between the two groups. 

  • Those who wore BWCs conducted fewer subject stops and were less likely to receive a complaint than officers that did not receive cameras.
  • However, BWCs had no effect on whether officers engaged in use of force during the study period.
Body-Worn Cameras
New Haven, CT2011

The New Haven SPI addressed rising violent crime and local shooting incidents in a persistently violent neighborhood in the city.

  • Modeled risk terrain to determine areas with the highest risk of violent crime.
  • Had 13 weeks of supplementary, focused foot patrols.
  • Increased use of data-driven decision making (e.g., daily “flash sheets” with maps, crime data, and other data).
  • Engaged community, particularly specific block groups.
  • Modified problem-oriented policing techniques (e.g., patrol officers identified issues such as street lighting and neglected properties, and supervisors implemented responses).
Research Design

Pre-intervention, intervention, and post-intervention analysis in target and control areas.


During intervention, 19% reduction in violent crime at the neighborhood-level and 36% reduction in violent crime in high-risk areas.

13 weeks following the intervention, 41% violent crime reduction at the neighborhood level and 56% reduction in the high-risk areas.

Gun Violence, Violence Reduction